Earlier this year I wrote First They Came for Bandwidth, where I described the motivation behind different sorts of attacks in an historical context:
First they came for bandwidth... These are attacks on availability, executed via denial of service attacks starting in the mid 1990's and monetized later via extortion. Next they came for secrets... These are attacks on confidentiality, executed via disclosure of sensitive data starting in the late 1990's and monetized as personally identifiable information and accounts for sale in the underground. Now they are coming to make a difference... These are attacks on integrity, executed by degrading information starting at the beginning of this decade.
When I wrote those words, the sorts of attacks on integrity I imagined involved changes to legitimate data. As is often the case with predictions, the reality has taken a similar but not exact direction. Attacks upon integrity are currently appearing as the introduction of outright falsehoods, either by mistake, mischief, or malice. Examples include repostings about UAL bankruptcy; fake posts about Steve Jobs having a heart attack; a fake IAC press release; and so on.
The good news about these incidents is that they become easy to spot. As is often the case with the adversary, low-end means to achieve a goal are used first, followed by increasing sophistication as the targets become more vigilant and experienced. Think about the evolution of phishing as a popular example, but others abound. Currently fake news is being injected into the Internet as a complete package. I would expect the next round to involve subtle modifications to legitimate content. Once some sort of trust technology is applied (digital signatures and the like), then the adversary will have to find ways to subvert those mechanisms.
The winners will be those who best protect their brand by ensuring the integrity of information from them and about them.