Pervasive Threat from Adversaries and Partners
Sensitive US economic information and technology are targeted by the intelligence services, private sector companies, academic and research institutions, and citizens of dozens of countries.
• Chinese actors are the world’s most active and persistent perpetrators of economic espionage. US private sector firms and cybersecurity specialists have reported an onslaught of computer network intrusions that have originated in China, but the IC cannot confirm who was responsible.
• Russia’s intelligence services are conducting a range of activities to collect economic information and technology from US targets.
• Some US allies and partners use their broad access to US institutions to acquire sensitive US economic and technology information, primarily through aggressive elicitation and other human intelligence (HUMINT) tactics. Some of these states have advanced cyber capabilities.
What's so significant about that section? The ONCIX is naming names right from the start, and concentrating squarely on China and Russia.
Contrast the 2011 approach with the 2008 report. If you search for "China" in the 2008 edition, you'll see only these sections in the main body of the report:
- China and Russia accounted for a considerable portion of foreign visits to DOE facilities during FY 2008.
- China continues to be a leading competitor in the race for clean coal technology.
- The DNI Open Source Center (OSC) contributes to the CI community’s effort against
China by monitoring foreign-language publications and Web sites for indications of
threats and sharing this information with appropriate agencies, including law
That's very different from the direct approach taken in 2011. However, if you check "Appendix B: Selected Arrests and Convictions for Economic Collection and Industrial Espionage Cases in FY 2008," in the 2008 report, you find China listed as the perpetrator of 7 of the 23 cases! So, although China has been an active threat for many years, only now is the ONCIX shining the spotlight on that country (along with Russia) as primary threats to US secrets and intellectual property.