Volume 13 Number 1 of the Cisco IP Journal features a fascinating DNS troubleshooting article titled "Rolling Over DNSSEC Keys" by George Michaelson, APNIC, Patrick Wallstrõm, .SE, Roy Arends, Nominet, and Geoff Huston, APNIC. It's one of the best articles I've ever read in IPJ. You should subscribe (it's free) if you like this blog.
In the article, the authors investigate a surge of DNS traffic suffered by a secondary DNS server that is authoritative for a number of subdomains of the in-addr.arpa zone.
The article explains what happens next.
I can cut to the chase with the following quotes:
In other words, in this example scenario with stale Trust Anchor keys in a local client's resolver, a single attempt to validate a single DNS response will cause the client to send a further 844 queries, and each .com Name Server to receive 56 DNSKEY RR queries and 4 DS RR queries...
The problem with key rollover and local management of trust keys appears to be found in around 1 in every 1,500 resolvers in the in-addr.arpa zones. With a current client population of some 1.5 million distinct resolver client addresses each day for these in-addr.arpa zones, there are some 1,000 resolvers who have lapsed into this repeated query mode following the most recent key rollover of December 2009. Each subzone of in-addr.arpa has six Name Server records, and all servers see this pathological re-query behavior following key rollover.
The conclusion is excellent:
It is an inherent quality of the DNSSEC deployment that in seeking to prevent lies, an aspect of the stability of the DNS has been weakened.
When a client falls out of synchronization with the current key state of DNSSEC, it will mistake the current truth for an attempt to insert a lie.
The subsequent efforts of the client to perform a rapid search for what it believes to be a truthful response could reasonably be construed as a legitimate response, if indeed this instance was an attack on that particular client. Indeed, to do otherwise would be to permit the DNS to remain an untrustable source of information.
However, in this situation of slippage of synchronized key state between client and server, the effect is both local failure and the generation of excess load on external servers — and if this situation is allowed to become a common state, it has the potential to broaden the failure state to a more general DNS service failure through load saturation of critical DNS servers.
This aspect of a qualitative change of the DNS is unavoidable, and it places a strong imperative on DNS operations and the community of the 5 million current and uncountable future DNS resolvers to understand that "set and forget" is not the intended mode of operation of DNSSEC-equipped clients.
To me, an interesting aspect of this story is that deployment of a security protocol in the real world is ultimately degraded by operational issues. We could probably name countless examples of this; DNSSEC is only the latest.