Tuesday, September 16, 2014

We Need More Than Penetration Testing

Last week I read an article titled  People too trusting when it comes to their cybersecurity, experts say by Roy Wenzl of The Wichita Eagle. The following caught my eye and prompted this post:

[Connor] Brewer is a 19-year-old sophomore at Butler Community College, a self-described loner and tech geek...

Today he’s what technologists call a white-hat hacker, hacking legally for companies that pay to find their own security holes. 

When Bill Young, Butler’s chief information security officer, went looking for a white-hat hacker, he hired Brewer, though Brewer has yet to complete his associate’s degree at Butler...

Butler’s security system comes under attack several times a week, Young said...

Brewer and others like him are hired by companies to deliberately attack a company’s security network. These companies pay bounties if the white hackers find security holes. “Pen testing,” they call it, for “penetration testing.”

Young has repeatedly assigned Brewer to hack into Butler’s computer system. “He finds security problems,” Young said. “And I patch them.”

On the face of it, this sounds like a win-win story. A young white hat hacker does something he enjoys, and his community college benefits from his expertise to defend itself.

My concern with this article is the final sentence:

Young has repeatedly assigned Brewer to hack into Butler’s computer system. “He finds security problems,” Young said. “And I patch them.”

This article does not mention whether Butler's CISO spends any time looking for intruders who have already compromised his organization. Finding security problems and patching them is only one step in the security process.

I still believe that the two best words ever uttered by Bruce Schneier were "monitor first," and I worry that organizations like those in this article are patching holes while intruders maneuver around them within the compromised network.

A Brief History of Network Security Monitoring

Last week I was pleased to deliver the keynote at the first Security Onion Conference in Augusta, GA, organized and hosted by Doug Burks. This was probably my favorite security event of the year, attended by many fans of Security Onion and the network security monitoring (NSM) community.

Doug asked me to present the history of NSM. To convey some of the milestones in the development of this operational methodology, I developed these slides (pdf). They are all images, screen captures, and the like, but I promised to post them. For example, the image at left is the first slide from a Webinar that Bamm Visscher and I delivered on 4 December 2002, where we presented the formal definition of NSM the first time. We defined network security monitoring as

the collection, analysis, and escalation of indications and warnings to detect and respond to intrusions.

You may recognize similarities with the intelligence cycle and John Boyd's Observe - Orient - Decide Act (OODA) loop. That is not an accident.

During the presentation I noted a few key years and events:

  • 1986: The Cliff Stoll intrusions scare the government, military, and universities supporting gov and mil research.
  • 1988: Lawrence Livermore National Lab funds three security projects at UC Davis by supporting the Prof Karl Levitt's computer science lab. They include AV software, a "security profile inspector," and the "network security monitor."
  • 1988-1990: Todd Heberlein and colleagues code and write about the NSM platform.
  • 1991: While instrumenting a DISA location suffering from excessive bandwidth usage, NSM discovers 80% of the clogged link is caused by intruder activity.
  • 1992: Former FBI Director, then assistant AG, Robert Mueller writes a letter to NIST warning that NSM might not be legal.
  • 1 October 1992: AFCERT founded.
  • 10 September 1993: AFIWC founded.
  • End of 1995: 26 Air Force sites instrumented by NSM.
  • End of 1996: 55 Air Force sites instrumented by NSM.
  • End of 1997: Over 100 Air Force sites instrumented by NSM.
  • 1999: Melissa worm prompts AFCERT to develop dedicated anti-malware team. This signaled a shift from detection of human adversaries interacting with victims to detection of mindless code interacting with victims.
  • 2001: Bamm Visscher deploys SPREG, the predecessor to Sguil, at our MSSP at Ball Aerospace.
  • 13 July 2001: Using SPREG, one of our analysts detects Code Red, 6 days prior to the public outbreak. I send a note to a mailing list on 15 July.
  • February 2003: Bamm Visscher recodes and releases Sguil as an open source NSM console.

As I noted in my presentation,. the purpose of the talk was to share the fact that NSM has a long history, some of which happened when many practitioners (including myself) were still in school.

This is not a complete history, either. For more information, please see my 2007 post Network Security Monitoring History and the foreword, written by Todd Heberlein, of my newest book The Practice of Network Security Monitoring.

Finally, I wanted to emphasize that NSM is not just full packet capture or logging full content data. NSM is a process, although my latest book defines seven types of NSM data. One of those data types is full content. You can read about all of them in the first first chapter of my book at the publisher Web site.

Thursday, September 04, 2014

Bejtlich Teaching at Black Hat Trainings 8-9 Dec 2014

I'm pleased to announce that I will be teaching one class at Black Hat Trainings 2014 in Potomac, MD, near DC, on 8-9 December 2014. The class is Network Security Monitoring 101. I taught this class in Las Vegas in July 2013 and 2014, and Seattle in December 2013. I posted Feedback from Network Security Monitoring 101 Classes last year as a sample of the student commentary I received.

This class is the perfect jumpstart for anyone who wants to begin a network security monitoring program at their organization. You may enter with no NSM knowledge, but when you leave you'll be able to understand, deploy, and use NSM to detect and respond to intruders, using open source software and repurposed hardware.

The first discounted registration deadline is 11:59 pm EDT October 31st. The second discounted registration deadline (more expensive than the first but cheaper than later) ends 11:59 pm EST December 5th. You can register here.

I recently topped the 1,000 student count for my cumulative years of teaching my own material at Black Hat. Since starting my current Black Hat teaching run in 2007, I've completely replaced each course every other year. In 2007-2008 I taught TCP/IP Weapons School version 1. In 2009-2010 I taught TCP/IP Weapons School version 2. In 2011-2012 I taught TCP/IP Weapons School version 3. In 2013-2014 I taught Network Security Monitoring 101.

I have no plans to design a new course for 2015 and beyond. If you want to see me teach Network Security Monitoring and related subjects, Black Hat is your best option.

Please sign up soon, for two reasons. First, if not enough people sign up early, Black Hat might cancel the class. Second, if many people sign up, you risk losing a seat. With so many classes taught at this venue, the conference lacks the large rooms necessary to support big classes.

Several students asked for a more complete class outline. So, in addition to the outline posted currently by Black Hat, I present the following that shows what sort of material I cover in my new class.

OVERVIEW

Is your network safe from intruders? Do you know how to find out? Do you know what to do when you learn the truth? If you are a beginner, and need answers to these questions, Network Security Monitoring 101 (NSM101) is the newest Black Hat course for you. This vendor-neutral, open source software-friendly, reality-driven two-day event will teach students the investigative mindset not found in classes that focus solely on tools. NSM101 is hands-on, lab-centric, and grounded in the latest strategies and tactics that work against adversaries like organized criminals, opportunistic intruders, and advanced persistent threats. Best of all, this class is designed *for beginners*: all you need is a desire to learn and a laptop ready to run a virtual machine. Instructor Richard Bejtlich has taught over 1,000 Black Hat students since 2002, and this brand new, 101-level course will guide you into the world of Network Security Monitoring.

CLASS OUTLINE

Day One

0900-1030
·         Introduction
·         Enterprise Security Cycle
·         State of South Carolina case study
·         Difference between NSM and Continuous Monitoring
·         Blocking, filtering, and denying mechanisms
·         Why does NSM work?
·         When NSM won’t work
·         Is NSM legal?
·         How does one protect privacy during NSM operations?
·         NSM data types
·         Where can I buy NSM?

1030-1045
·         Break

1045-1230
·         SPAN ports and taps
·         Making visibility decisions
·         Traffic flow
·         Lab 1: Visibility in ten sample networks
·         Security Onion introduction
·         Stand-alone vs server plus sensors
·         Core Security Onion tools
·         Lab 2: Security Onion installation

1230-1400
·         Lunch

1400-1600
·         Guided review of Capinfos, Tcpdump, Tshark, and Argus
·         Lab 3: Using Capinfos, Tcpdump, Tshark, and Argus

1600-1615
·         Break

1615-1800
·         Guided review of Wireshark, Bro, and Snort
·         Lab 4: Using Wireshark, Bro, and Snort
·         Using Tcpreplay with NSM consoles
·         Guided review of process management, key directories, and disk usage
·         Lab 5: Process management, key directories, and disk usage

Day Two

0900-1030
·         Computer incident detection and response process
·         Intrusion Kill Chain
·         Incident categories
·         CIRT roles
·         Communication
·         Containment techniques
·         Waves and campaigns
·         Remediation
·         Server-side attack pattern
·         Client-side attack pattern

1030-1045
·         Break

1045-1230
·         Guided review of Sguil
·         Lab 6: Using Sguil
·         Guided review of ELSA
·         Lab 7: Using ELSA

1230-1400
·         Lunch

1400-1600
·         Lab 8. Intrusion Part 1 Forensic Analysis
·         Lab 9. Intrusion Part 1 Console Analysis

1600-1615
·         Break

1615-1800
·         Lab 10. Intrusion Part 2 Forensic Analysis
·         Lab 11. Intrusion Part 2 Console Analysis

REQUIREMENTS

Students must be comfortable using command line tools in a non-Windows environment such as Linux or FreeBSD. Basic familiarity with TCP/IP networking and packet analysis is a plus.

WHAT STUDENTS NEED TO BRING

NSM101 is a LAB-DRIVEN course. Students MUST bring a laptop with at least 8 GB RAM and at least 20 GB free on the hard drive. The laptop MUST be able to run a virtualization product that can CREATE VMs from an .iso, such as VMware Workstation (minimum version 8, 9 or 10 is preferred); VMware Player (minimum version 5 -- older versions do not support VM creation); VMware Fusion (minimum version 5, for Mac); or Oracle VM VirtualBox (minimum version 4.2). A laptop with access to an internal or external DVD drive is preferred, but not mandatory.

Students SHOULD test the open source Security Onion (http://securityonion.blogspot.com) NSM distro prior to class. The students should try booting the latest version of the 12.04 64 bit Security Onion distribution into live mode. Students MUST ensure their laptops can run a 64 bit virtual machine. For help with this requirement, see the VMware knowledgebase article “Ensuring Virtualization Technology is enabled on your VMware host (1003944)” (http://kb.vmware.com/selfservice/microsites/search.do?language=en_US&cmd=displayKC&externalId=1003944). Students MUST have the BIOS password for their laptop in the event that they need to enable virtualization support in class. Students MUST also have administrator-level access to their laptop to install software, in the event they need to reconfigure their laptop in class.

WHAT STUDENTS WILL RECEIVE

Students will receive a paper class handbook with printed slides, a lab workbook, and the teacher’s guide for the lab questions. Students will also receive a DVD with a recent version of the Security Onion NSM distribution.

TRAINERS

Richard Bejtlich is Chief Security Strategist at FireEye, and was Mandiant's Chief Security Officer when FireEye acquired Mandiant in 2013. He is a nonresident senior fellow at the Brookings Institution, a board member at the Open Information Security Foundation, and an advisor to Threat Stack, Sqrrl, and Critical Stack. He is also a Master/Doctor of Philosophy in War Studies Researcher at King's College London. He was previously Director of Incident Response for General Electric, where he built and led the 40-member GE Computer Incident Response Team (GE-CIRT). Richard began his digital security career as a military intelligence officer in 1997 at the Air Force Computer Emergency Response Team (AFCERT), Air Force Information Warfare Center (AFIWC), and Air Intelligence Agency (AIA). Richard is a graduate of Harvard University and the United States Air Force Academy. His fourth book is "The Practice of Network Security Monitoring" (nostarch.com/nsm). He also writes for his blog (taosecurity.blogspot.com) and Twitter (@taosecurity), and teaches for Black Hat.